Analysis of the Training of Sports Intellectual Factors

Dunguo Rong

Dept. of PE, Shanghai Business College, China


To develop the comprehensive competitive ability of the athletes, we should not only pay high attention to the physical fitness and skills, but also attach great importance to the development of sports intelligence. The sports intelligence is the determiner of the action of the athlete in many sports, which determines how far he can go and how much he can get. In view of the abstract and difficult to operate, we illustrate specifically the training of the sports intelligence systematically on the basis of theory and the practice research for many years.


The methods we adopted mainly include the expert interview method, the logic analysis method and the literature data method.


The paper elaborates the important meaning of the development of the sports intelligence and from the view of Chinese non-intelligence theory, it also expounds the characters and the training methods of the five sports intelligence: sports attention, sports memory, sports observation, sports thinking ability and sports imagination.


(1) The development of the sports intelligence of the athletes is long-term and complex system engineering. (2) To develop the sports intellectual factors, it requires the combination of the development with the needs of specific sports items and also requires the connection of all sports factors. (3) To be successful, an athlete should have not only perfect physical condition and sports intelligence, but also excellent sports non-intellectual factors. To develop the sports intelligence of the athletes, their sports non-intellectual factors must be developed continually with regular plan and purpose as well.

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Analysis of the Chinese elite male high jump athletes' Zhang GUO WEI for training

Hui Han

Beijing sports university track and field section, China


High jump is the advantage of project in China, Three people broke the world record for five, ZHANG GUO WEI is in May 2015 to 2.38 m approximation ZHU JIA HUA results in the high jump, The training and technical characteristics of ZHANG has the vital significance to improve the athletes' performance and value.


(1) Of literature

(2) Questionnaire investigation


(1) The high jump athletes' ZHANG basic situation China's high jump athletes' ZHANG Height 1.97 meters, weight 76 kg was born in June 1991 Best is 2.38 meter, the 2013 national indoor track and field championships won first prize at the same time with 2.32 m broke ZHU keep records of the 27 years of national indoor, in the just-concluded inch Asian games, careful analysis every link of high jump technology. Therefore, to explore Chinese elite men's high jump athletes ZHANG jump the technical kinematics characteristic, strive to for our country's high jump technology and training to provide a more scientific basis.

(2) The high jump athletes' ZHANG technical characteristics High jump athletes ZHANG technology USES step 8 run-up rhythm, run-up speed gradually accelerated, jump moments of support technology, from the perspective of biomechanics analysis, jump start instantly jump leg can not completely straight, nor excessive bending. If in this moment takeoff leg unbend completely, then the body will be strong support comes from the ground reaction force, and the possibility of takeoff leg injury has greatly increased; ZHANG in the obvious steps rhythm, rhythm is obvious enhancement, fall of run-up actively, but also showed obvious trend of rhythmic and amplitude. ZHANG technique specification, strong and have obvious sense of rhythm, The phenomenon of the buffer range is too large. the correlation coefficient of R = 0.76.

(3) High jump athletes' ZHANG training characteristics The training characteristics of ZHANG is: is closely integrated with the run-up speed of form the main characteristics of the training, using the run-up speed is to achieve the accuracy of run-up speed and strength, the main task of the combination is normative forms and characteristics, implementation movement of a volleyball player worth thinking about seriously. The main task of The 2nd Asia-Pacific Conference on Coaching Science 3 the high jump is to get. High jump athletes ZHANG characteristics as follows: Zhang has 12 games in 2015, seven times over two meters 30.


(1) Strengthen technique and rhythm training, increase the number of game and the size of the training, and improve the level of training and competition.

(2) Long-term training system is the main task of the athletes training and key.

(3) To strengthen the training and competition as well as the basic task of strength training during training.

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The realization on the concept of "Great National Team" about Chinese women's volleyball team based on the 2016 Olympic Games

Xinglin Zhang

Han-Shan Teacher's College, China


Summarize the "Great National Team" concept raised by Lang Ping (Jenny) based on 8 games played by Chinese women's volleyball team in the 2016 Olympic Games. To perfect the concept of "Great National Team" through the analysis on it's advantage and disadvantage. Hope this concept can play huge role in training and competition to the Chinese competitive sports.


1.Observation: to observe 8 games played by Chinese women's volleyball team in the 2016 Olympic Games.

2.Statistics: to calculate the data on 8 games played by Chinese women's volleyball team.

3.Logical analysis: to analysis the concept of "Great National Team" based on the observation and statistics.


1.The concept of "Great National Team"

There are 2 articles (about tennis and swimming) and 3 national teams (tennis\swimming and volleyball) have relations with the "Great National Team" by the year of 2016. They (tennis and swimming team) thought that the "Great National Team" means more athletes and coaches on national team training. And Lang Ping (Jenny) thought that it should have 3 means: the first is like tennis and swimming team; the second is that every athlete (12 for volleyball match) can play in the match; the third is that the training team should have a huge assist team.

2.The understanding and suggestion on the "Great National Team"

(1) Plentiful backup talents
The backup talents is an important part of competitive sports for one country. The quantity and quality of the backup talents is the decisive factor on the competitive level for one country. The backup talents is the guarantee for the "Great National Team"

(2) Powerful personal ability
These 12 players (there are 12 players for one volleyball team.) should all have the powerful competitive ability. This can cope with many games in one duty.

(3) Strong assist team
Today's contest of competitive sports must be detail oriented. The "Great National Team" must have a strong assist team including: medical staff, rehabilitation member, training partners, medical services, fitness trainer, outstanding scientific researchers and data processing staff, etc.


The training concept of "Great National Team" is right. We should keep this faith in training and game for our national team. The hard-core of the training concept of "Great National Team" is plentiful backup talents, powerful personal ability, and strong assist team.

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Pre-competition Training Load in Elite Sprinters: Theoretical Basis and Practical Exploration

——A Case Study of Asian Men's 100 m Sprint Champion Zhang Peimeng in Preparation for the 2013 Moscow World Championships in Athletics ——

Zili Jiang

Department of Physical Education, Tsinghua University, China


During the semifinal heat of the men's 100-meter (m) race at the 2013 Moscow World Championships in Athletics, Chinese sprinter Zhang Peimeng ran a new personal best of 10.00 seconds. This performance bested the 100-m Chinese national record of 10.04 seconds set by him on April 27, 2013 in Zhaoqing. Zhang's performance also matched the Asian 100-m record of 10.00 seconds set by Koji Ito on December 13, 1998 in Bangkok. It suggests that Zhang was in the optimal competitive state in Moscow. Therefore, the aim of the study was to examine the pre-competition training practices of an elite sprinter.


Subject: Zhang Peimeng, male, age 26.5 years, height 1.87 cm, weight 76 kg, is a Chinese sprinter who specializes in the 100-m sprint, and achieved his personal best of 10.00 seconds in Moscow in August of 2013. The aim of this study is to explore the changing characteristics of Zhang's pre-competition training load in preparation for the 2013 Moscow World Championships in Athletics, which occurred during the seven weeks prior to Moscow (from June 24, 2013 to August 9, 2013).

Follow-up investigation: The authors of this study tracked Zhang's training processes for many years, and recorded his training content, training means and methods, training intensity, volume, and frequency of different motor abilities in detail, which of course included the 7-week pre-competition training phase in preparation for the 2013 Moscow World Championships.

Experimentation: Zhang's biochemical parameters associated were determined each Monday morning between 7:30 AM and 8:00 AM during the precompetitive phase (weeks 7, 5, 3, and 1) prior to Moscow. The specific method was as follows: (1) testosterone (T) and cortisol (C). One milliliter (mL) of venous blood was obtained and injected into an anti-coagulant tube. This blood was mixed and then was centrifuged to obtain serum, which was analyzed using an automatic immune chemiluminescence analyzer; (2) creatine kinase (CK) and blood urea (BUN). One mL of venous blood was obtained and injected into an anti-coagulant tube. This blood was mixed and then was centrifuged to obtain serum, which was analyzed by an automatic biochemical analyzer produced by Beckman Counter􀀕(3) hemoglobin (HGB), red blood cell count (RBC), hematocrit (HCT), white blood cell count (WBC), and platelet count (PLT). One mL of venous blood was obtained and injected into an anti-coagulant tube and analyzed by the three classification blood analyzer produced by Mindray.

Statistical analysis: All data were analyzed using Excel 2013.


The main characteristic of Zhang's pre-competition training was precompetitive tapering. Zhang's aerobic endurance, speed endurance, and reactive force training volume decreased, while his maximal strength and speed training volume increased. Zhang's total training volume decreased by 20% with a progressive non-linear pattern. During pre-competitive training Zhang's serum creatine kinase and blood urea nitrogen concentrations demonstrated a downward trend and reached 243 IU/L and 5.56 mmol/L, respectively. Testosterone levels and the testosterone: cortisol ratio demonstrated an upward trend and reached 888 ng/dL and 40.73, respectively. His hemoglobin level peaked before the competition, while his red blood cell count, hematocrit, white blood cell count, and platelet count remained in the normal range. These data demonstrated that Zhang was in his optimal physiological state prior to competition.


A structured 7-week pre-competition training program, subject to alteration based on biochemical data, contributed to Zhang's optimal performance at the 2013 Moscow World Championships.

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Related research of outstanding open-man rower's body composition and their performance of rowing 2 km

Jie Cao

Hubei Provincial Institute of Sports Sience

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Searching for a Better Community for Coach Developers to Learn

Shigeki Sarodo

Nippon Sport Science University (Japan)


The purpose of this study was to review the contribution of NSSU (Nippon Sport Science University) Coach Developer Academy that was established in 2014 to build a coaching culture in sport leading to a positive experience for people across the world by fostering coach developers and the global coach developer community.


Our Academy, partnering with ICCE (The International Council for Coaching Excellence), holds short program for one week twice in each year on NSSU campus in a face-to-face environment, and an online e-module program. Short campus program is aimed at each delegate, who mostly comes from sports organizations, IFs, or universities all over the world, to gain abilities to become a coach developer by understanding facilitation and assessment. They are also required to review back and share their own experiences and problems faced for making a community of coach developer. We invited prominent scholars for giving a session and lecture on their expertise in each year.


In our three years of running the programs, we have welcomed in total 37 participants from 23 countries. We can see the fact that a community of coach developers is being built and their bonds are getting stronger. In addition, communications through SNS such as Facebook and twitter have become crucially active. Most importantly, our Academy is now playing a role of hub for the coach developers.


In conclusion, we can safely say that our project of searching for a better community for coach developers could open up the future possibilities of building a coaching culture, fostering future international coach develops and constructing a community of coach developers across the world.

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Study on the Physical and Psychological Effects of the Snow Games

Kotaro Aoki

National Institution for Youth Education, Shibuya, Japan

Physical fitness and exercise capacity of children in Hokkaido is low as compared to the national average, because they hardly play outside in the winter. Therefore, we have developed "Snow games", in order to improve the physical fitness and exercise capacity of children in Hokkaido.

Snow games are the outdoor packaged program that was developed for the purpose of play enjoying the snow and cold in winter. Snow games included three types of activities, Exercise system activity (8 activities), Search system activity (2 activities), and Empathy system activity (1 activity). We indicated the activity conditions and teaching methods for each activity, also indicated the four points of activity guidance in Snow games. Four points of activity guidance in Snow games are "To carry out the demonstration", "Taking the preparation time", "Repeating the same activities", and "Making time of allowance".

We carried out experiment to examine physical and psychological effects of Snow games. All subjects performed three snow games, "Snow Flag", "Snow Tag", and "Catch the Tail" on both snow and dry land (indoor) . Calories (kcal), step counts, exercise intensity (METs), heart rate (bpm) were measured for evaluating the amounts of activities during the snow games. To determine the differences between snow and dry land, these data were compared with each conditions. These results will be explained at the time of the presentation. Furthermore, in order to verify the psychological effect of the snow game, we conducted a questionnaire survey after the activity. In the survey, we asked about "Fun", "Motivation (try again)", "Physical fitness (physical load)" of activities. As a result, it has a rating of outdoor nearer in all of "Fun", "Physical fitness", "Motivation" in any of the activities, the trend was particularly noticeable in particular in the "Snow flag".

In the future, we continue to work on verification of the educational effect, and develop a new activity of Snow games. Further, we create the activities manual (leader's text, children's Handbook), want to continue working to spread Snow games.

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Why did top level junior gymnasts quit the sports?


Nippon Sport Science University, Japan


Becoming a high performance athlete is not an easy task. Tons of deliberate practice have to be done to achieve elite performance. It would take more than ten years. Very few athletes can achieve high performance, even though many junior athletes dream that they will become the top athletes in the future. This situation is also true in gymnastics, one of the sports which Japan has been leading the world for a long time. Attentions of the audience would tend to be drawn to the glorious achievement of the top athletes. However, behind the glories, there must be the dark side of pursuing the high performance. In order for us to foster the integrity of the sports, we also need to shed light on the negative side of our coaching. In the present study, the ex-to-level junior gymnasts who quitted the sports before getting to the senior athletes were interviewed to understand the reasons of their drop out from the sports.


Semi-structured interviews were conducted on four different gymnasts, i.e., artistic, rhythmic, trampoline, and aerobic gymnasts. They were selected as the informants of this study because they exhibited top level performance nationally/internationally as junior but quitted their sports before competing as senior. All the interviews were recorded with IC recorder and transcribed verbatim. For the qualitative analysis, Steps for Cording and Theorization (SCAT) was utilized. The steps of the SCAT are 1) specifying important words and phrases, 2) rewording those words and phrases into more general expressions, 3) conceptualization, 4) producing themes, and 5) writing a story line.


The reasons why the top level youth athletes went up to the high-performance and quitted the sports were diverse. The common theme obtained was the appreciation to the support of their families. The high performance endeavor could not be possible without the support of the families. On the other hand, the relationships between the athletes and their coaches or peer gymnasts depended on their contexts which changed as they moved to different environments to seek better coaching. Coaching behavior could be one of the most probable reason to quit playing sports.


Coaching has dynamic and complex nature. How we define the success in coaching would be difficult, however, we should say that having the athlete quit the sport because of the coaching is the flaw. We as coaches need to reflect on our own coaching and should keep trying to improve coaching crafts.

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Prince Mérode Memorial IOC Sports Science Education Project

Iizuka K.

Todainoken.Co.Ltd, Japan


Prior to Nagano Olympic Winter Games in 1998, Prince Alexandre de Mérode, the director of the Medical Commission in IOC, and Dr. Watanabe Kazuhiko discussed about a new project of sports science education besides the biomechanics research project which had already been running. Prince Mérode gave a strong support to Dr. Watanabe's idea that Olympic Games are good occasion for people to watch the top athletes from scientific view and sports science education program should be prepared before the Olympic Games.


Thus the sports science education project started in Nagano. The educational materials used for the project were two kinds: the set of 30 panel boards (1m*2m) with sports science topics, and the set of 6 video programs (20min each). Each panel was titled 1) Welcome to the sports science panel board exhibition, 2) Enjoy ten times the short track speed skating, 3) Limit of human power, 4) What is "doping"?, 05) Magic boots-why slap skate run faster?-, etc. Total of 30 panels were prepared by 37 authors from 14 universities, 3 companies, a high school and an elementary school. They were exhibited at the largest Olympic Gymnasium in Nagano, M-WAVE, during the Games. The graduate students helped people understand the panel topics. Another set of 30 panel boards were shown in the PE classes at elementary and junior high schools in Nagano City. The video programs titled 1) Ski jumping 2) Bobsleigh and luge, 3) Nordic skiing, etc. were delivered to 600 elementary and junior high schools in Nagano Prefecture before the Olympics.


Unfortunately Prince Mérode passed away in 2002. The project members decided to put his name onto the projec to memorize his ideal and continue the project. With the help of Chinese, Korean, and Russian students, the panel topics were translated into several languages and put up on the website. However the difficulties were 1) to lay out each page in html and CSS within a limited time, 2) to make multi-lingual pages without knowing all those languages. So finally the original Japanese body text was cut into short sentences and numbered from "01.txt" with the corresponding chart "01.jpg". Thus by writing the numbers in the html, the sentence and the chart can be seen one after another in a simple format. Also the short sentences made it easier to translate into another language. The topics on the panel boards are now seen on the website "wintersportscience.net" in English and Japanese. Video programs are also seen on YouTube.


Coaching science is based on the knowledge that science can promote human physical and mental ability. Asian countries will host Olympic Games in Pyeong Chang 2018, Tokyo 2020, Beijing 2012. The Olympic Games, like Nagano, are important occasion for sports scientists to appeal to the public, especially to the young people.

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The Coaching and Incentive

Seki Tomoaki

Nayoro City University, Japan

The purpose of this study is to consider a coating and an incentive relation. The organization draws out "Burden, Effort, Contribution" from an individual, and an individual can give "Incentive from the organization. It's exchange with equivalent. Those relations are exchange with equivalent. Next, about each, it's considered.

The case that personal "Burden, Effort, Contribution" contributes to a victory of a team but also, there are many. For example it's cooperation with the member to whom the inside isn't preferred, irrational training, acceptance of an alternate player and booing from a coach. From the organization, incentive to an individual, as well as something economical, there are many. For example it's other people's affairs, a paid holiday, studying abroad and training. Approval is also evaluation. Maximum evaluation is necessary to the member who does "Burden, Effort, Contribution" negatively for organization. The member who could give evaluation from a coach behaves well repeatedly for organization.

These are "Positive Incentive", but there is also "Negative Incentive". The typical one is "Corporal Punishment". "Corporal Punishment" is "Negative Incentive", but it's important problem by a Japanese sport. There are many teams by which "the players for whom coaching is difficult" "the player who ignores coaching" gather by a team. During having a tense feeling every day by the team by which such players gather much, it's confronted with players and a coach have to be coaching.

The purpose of this study was to consider considers a coating and the incentive relation while consulting organization theory of Barnard,C.I (1938). The study method tried making of a matrix of incentive of organization (vertical axis) and personal contribution (transverse). In other words, a coating and an incentive relation are considered from a four-dimensional matrix. It's possible to grasp the psychological situation of the member by doing that. Below is a summary.

Only four of over quadrant and one are an ideal (++), and other three will be a problem (+-/-+/--). When there are few triggers though an individual is contributing, a member becomes dissatisfied. When there is a lot of incentive though there is little personal contribution, the other members are dissatisfied (+-). When personal contribution is little and incentive from organization is little, it's heavy losses of organization. An incentive concerns a coating deeply in this all quadrants.

When a member becomes a lot, I see has to supply much incentive to a coach and return to members. Ultimately, a coach is requesting to create incentive. In case of a Japanese school sport. When it's a bigwig area of baseball, soccer and an easy be, there are a lot of teams of more than 100 people. Carriage of a tool, scouting and support get incentives necessary to the organization from a coach for a player besides the member. Those many players are called "HOKETSU". It's important to be able to maintain the balance of incentive the organization possesses and number of members.

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A Single Case Study of Counseling Targeting the Golf Coach

Lim, Hyosung

Korea National Sport University, Korea


Field intervention through psychological counseling plays a significant role in enhancing the athletic performance. However, the scene where the coach gets psychological support in the field is still unfamiliar. In this study, we suggested the possibility of the coach as a beneficiary of the psychological counseling by providing the counseling case study targeting the coach. The work to help the coach through counseling is expected to improve the coaching field where the coach is involved in and hence beneficial to the players he interacts with.


The client, a 32-year-old male, runs the golf academy that has 20 people as its member. On average, he works more than 6 days a week and 10 hours per day and the workload is so intense that he frequently comes to work at dawn and visits provinces depending on the golf match or practice schedules. The main problem of the client was the stress due to his job role. The counseling approached with the model of Solution-Focused Brief Therapy. As Chung et al.(2007) pointed out, the consultant tried to promote the change of the client by setting the goals together through the active cooperation with him as well as helping the client to discover the solution of the problem and ways to success. The counseling was conducted for 10 sessions over two months.


First, the client, through the process of navigating the role he should play and stress factors, perceived his role that was once ambiguous and identified the stress caused by his role. The goal is to relieve the two kinds of stress. One is the stress that occurs when the multiple roles are required at once and the other, among the stress coming from his role, occurs when he pursues the role of a teacher.

Second, in regards to the stress due to the overlap of multiple roles, the client arranged a solution by replacing the assumed roles with the resources he has and getting help from people around him. Meanwhile, as to the stress coming from pursuing the teacher role, the client realized that it is the inevitable one when reaffirming his leader image and decided to accept the stress with a receptive attitude.

Finally, through the process described above, the client stated that he was able to relieve most of his stress and showed the confidence in coping with the future stress as well.

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